Term Paper

Prepared to:
Mr. Mario Cudiamat

As a partial fulfilment of the requirements in Physics IV

Prepared by:
John Dave J. Gamez
IV- Pope Gregory XIII
S.Y. 2010-2011


A term paper entitled ???EXPLORING THE SPECTRUM OF COLORS??? is a partial fulfilment of the requirement given by Mr. Mario Cudiamat in Physics IV, Immaculate Conception College, Balayan, Batangas, and S.Y. 2010-2011.


This document entitled ???EXPLORING THE SPECTRUM OF COLORS??? is submitted to Mr. Mario Cudiamat, as a partial fulfilment of the requirements in English IV. After approval and proof reading, it earned a grade of ____%.


The author acknowledges his warmest thanks to his family who are very supportive to him, to his friends and classmates who help him in making this research, to his teacher Mr. Mario Cudiamat and last but not the least to our Almighty who give him talent and strength in making the research.

The Author


The researcher would like to dedicate this research paper to our Lord Jesus Christ, to his family, friends, classmates and all the people who helped him especially to his teacher Mr. Mario Cudiamat who supported him in this endeavour by helping him gather data for the research paper.

The Author


Title Page
Approval Sheet
Chapter I Problems and Procedures
A. Introduction
B. Statement of the Study
C. Significance
D. Vocabulary
E. Methodology
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
Chapter III
Presentation of data
Chapter IV
Chapter V

RGB is used by most electronic and transmissive-light technologies such as TV and film, and CMY (actually CMYK including Black) is used with reflected light technologies such as printing inles. The primaries traditionally taught in art school for painters, and for this reason the ones well be discussing here, are YRB (yellow/red/blue). There??™s no point in arguing over which primary system is best- they each have their place in a specific discipline. Any colour of the spectrum can be made by mixing the Yellow, Red, and Blue primaries. This is why they are called First-Order colours. These are pure colours and are not created though mixing any other colours. If you look at the Colour Spectrum at the top of this page you??™ll notice that while there an infinity of additional colours, convention has it that there is in fact an additional.
These 12 colours, starting at the top of the colour wheel with Blue and moving clockwise are; Blue-Violet, Violet, Red-Violet, Red, Red-Orange, Orange, Yellow-Orange, Yellow, Yellow-Green, Green and Blue-Green.


1. What wavelengths go with color
2. What are spectral colors
3. What are the theories of color vision
4. What is ultraviolet light
5. What is infrared light


The study of this research paper is very significant because we have learned about colors and we came to know also the theories of color and its mixtures. By this study, we were able to explore the spectrum of colors.


COLOR- is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue and others.
INTENSITY- is a measure of the energy flux, averaged over the period of the wave.
OPAQUE- Impenetrable by a form of radiant energy other than visible light.
PERCEIVE- to become aware of, know, or identify by means of senses.
PIGMENT- is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
RAINBOW- is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines on to droplets of moisture in the Earth??™s atmosphere.
SPECTRAL- is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from a deficiency or excess of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
SPECTRUM- is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.
TRICHOMATIC- having, or using three colours, as in the three color process in printing and photography.
VISIBLE- is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.


Most light sources are mixtures of various wavelengths of light. However, many such sources can still have spectral color insofar as the eye cannot distinguish them from monochromatic sources. For example, most computer displays reproduce the spectral color orange as a combination of red and green light; it appears orange because the red and green are mixed in the right proportions to allow they eye??™s red and green cones to respond the way they do to orange.
A useful concept in understanding the perceived color of a non-monochromatic light source is the dominant wavelength, which identifies the single wavelength of light that produces a sensation most similar to the light source. Dominant wavelength is roughly akin to hue.
There are many color perceptions that by definition cannot be pure spectral colours due to desaturation or because they are purples (mixtures of red and violet light, from opposite ends of the spectrum). Some examples of necessarily non-spectral colours are the achromatic colours (black, gray and white) and colours such as pink, tan, and magenta.
Two different light spectra that have the same effect on the three color receptors in the human eye will be perceived as the same color. This is exemplified by the white light emitted by fluorescent lamps, which typically has a spectrum of a few narrow bands, while daylight has continuous spectrums. The human eye cannot tell the difference between such light spectra just by looking into the light source, although reflected colours from objects can look different (this is often exploited e.g., to make fruit or tomatoes look more intensely red).
Similarly, most human color perceptions can be generated by a mixture of three colors called primaries. This is used to reproduce color scenes in photography, printing, television, and other media. Three are a number of methods or color spaces for specifying a color in terms of three particular primary colors. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages depending on the particular application.


Dr. John Ott was upsetting a lot of establishment-type dogmatic teachers and professors is the 1970??™s and his showed we all need the trace UV radiation which comes from the sun, and that it is not a danger. He showed suggested school children were reacting badly ??“with outbreaks of leukaemia and hyperactive behaviour ??“when confined like lab rats in those windows-less fluorescent-lit cages called ???schools???. He stumbled upon these problems while making time-lapse films for Disney, observing that basic physiology and even sexual behaviour was affected by loss of rest. The trace UV and that life required full spectrum lights and the normal dark period of rest. The implications of this is fluorescent lights (even the cute childhood little ???compact fluorescent???, which are little toxic bombs) cause cancers childhood learning and behaviour disorders and long term exposure to non-visible radiations from fluorescent lights, computers, microwave ovens, cell phones and such also harm your health.


The researcher first make a search of what topic is very interesting and related to our daily activities then he gathered information and data about the topic he had chosen. He made some researches, and even stuffed at the internet then he analysed and summarize the topics he had chosen then he made proof reading and have the teacher checked it then he finalized it.

-chart: color meanings by ???Culture???. 2010
-Coffey F. Bohren (2006)
-Encyclopedia Britannica
-chart: color meanings by ???Culture???. 2010
-Coffey F. Bohren (2006)
-Encyclopedia Britannica
-gathering of data
-editing and revision
-gathering of data
-editing and revision
-edited term paper
-edited term paper

> >


Indigo Light
The visible indigo light has a wavelength of about 445 nm.
Blue Light
The visible blue light has a wavelength of about 475 nm. Because the blue wavelengths are shorter in the visible spectrum, they are scattered more efficiently by the molecules in the atmosphere. This causes the sky to appear blue.
Green Light
The visible green light has a wavelength of about 510 nm. Grass, for example, appears green because all of the colors in the visible part of the spectrum are absorbed into the leaves of the grass except green. Green is reflected, therefore grass appears green.
Yellow Light
The visible yellow light has a wavelength of about 570 nm. Low pressure sodium lamps, like those used in some parking lots, emit a yellow (wavelength 589 nm).
Orange Light
The visible orange light has a wavelength of about 590 nm.
Red Light
The visible red light has a wavelength of about 650 nm. At sunrise and sunset, red or orange colors are present because the wavelengths associated with these colors are less efficiently scattered by the atmosphere than the sorter wavelengths colors (e.g., blue and purple). A large amount of blue and violet light has been removed as a result of scattering and the long wave colors, such as red and orange, are more readily seen.

The familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum- named using the Latin word for appearance of apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671- include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate frequencies (in terahertz) and wavelengths (in nanometres) for various pure spectral colors. The wavelengths are measured in air or vacuum (see refraction)
The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list ??“ the pure spectral colors from a continuous spectrum, and how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency (although people everywhere have been shown to perceive colors in the same way). A common list identifies six main bands: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Newton??™s conception includes a seventh color, indigo between blue and violet. Optical scientists Hardy and Perrin list indigo as between 446 and 464 nm wavelength.
The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; for example, a low-intensity orange-yellow is brown, and a low-intensity yellow-green is olive-green.

Although Aristotle and other concient scientists had already written on the nature of light and color vision, it was not until Newton that light was identified as the source of the color sensation. In 1810, Goethe published his comprehensive Theory of Colors. In 1801 Thomas Young proposed his trichromatic theory, based on the observation that any color could be matched with a combination of three lights. This theory was later refined by James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann van Helmholtz. As Helmholtz puts it, ???the principles of Newton??™s law of mixture were experimentally confirmed by Maxwell in 1856. Young??™s theory of colors sensations, like so much else that this marvellous investigator achieved in advance of his time, remained unnoticed until Maxwell directed to it???.
At the same time as Helmholtz, Ewald Hering developed the opponent process theory of color, nothing that color blindness and after images typically come in opponent pairs (red-green, blue-orange, yellow-purple, and black-white). Ultimately these two theories were synthesized in 1957 by Hurvich and Jameson, who showed that retinal processing corresponds to the trichromatic theory, while processing at the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus corresponds to the opponent theory.

Energy with wavelengths too short to see is ???bluer than blue???. Light with such short wavelengths is called ???Ultraviolet??? light. One way is that this kind of light causes sunburns. Our skin is sensitive to this kind of light. If we stay out in this light without sunblock protection, our skin absorbs this energy. After the energy is absorbed, it can make our skin change color (???tan???) or it can break down the cells and cause other damage.

Energy whose wavelength is too long to see is ???redder than red???. Light with such long wavelengths is called ???Infrared??? light. The term ???Infrared??? means ???lower than???.
How do we know this kind of exists One way is that we can feel energy with these wavelengths such as when we sit in front of a campfire or when we get closer to a stove burner. Scientists like Samuel Pierpont Langley passes light to a prism and discovered that the Infrared light the scientist could not see beyond red could make other things hot.
Very long wavelengths of infrared light radiate heat to outer space. This radiation is important to the earth??™s energy budget. If this didn??™t scape to space, the solar energy that the earth absorbs would continue to heat the Earth.


Colors that can be produced by visible light of a narrow band of wavelengths (monochromatic light) are called pure spectral colors. The various color ranges indicated in the diagram on the right are an approximation: the spectrum is continuous, with no clear boundaries between one color and the next.
Spectroscopy is the study of objects based on the spectrum of color they emit or absorb. Spectroscopy is an important investigative tool in astronomy where scientists use it to analyse the properties of distant objects. Typically, astronomical spectroscopy uses high-dispersion diffraction gratings to observe spectra at very high spectral resolution. Helium was first detected by analysing the spectrum of the sun. Chemical elements can be detected in astronomical objects by emission lines and absorption lines.
The shifting of spectral lines can be used to measure the Doppler shift (red shift or blue shift) of distant objects. The first exoplanets were discovered by analysing the Doppler shift of the parent star which revealed variations in radial velocity, the star??™s speed relative to Earth, caused by the planet??™s gravitational influence.
Color displays (e.g., computer monitors and televisions) mix re, green, and blue color to create colors within their respective color triangles, and so can only approximately represents spectral colors, which are in general outside any color triangle. Colors outside the color gamut of the display devise result in negative values. If color accurate reproduction of the spectrum is desired, negative values can be avoided by rendering the spectra on a gray background. This gives an accurate simulation of looking at spectrum on a gray background.


The color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light living their surfaces, which normally depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and their reflectance properties of the surface, as well as potentially on the angle of the illumination and viewing. Some objects not only reflect light, but also transmit light or emit light themselves (see below), which contribute to the color also. And a viewer??™s perceptions of the object??™s color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but also on a host of contextual cues, so that the color tends to be perceived as relative constant: that is, relatively the independent of lightning spectrum, viewing angle, etc.


To summarize, the color of an object is a complex result of its surface properties, its transmission properties, and its emission properties, all of which factors contribute to the mix of wavelengths in the light leaving the surface of the object. The perceived color is then further conditioned by the nature of the ambient illumination, and by the color properties of other objects nearby, via the effect known as color constancy and via other characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain.
The exact nature of color perception beyond the processing already described, and indeed the status of color as a feature of the perceived world or rather as a feature of our perception of the world, is a matter of complex and continuing philosophical dispute.


???Chart: Color Meanings by Culture???. 2010
Craig F. Bohren (2006) Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems. Wiley- VCH.
Coffey, Peter (1912). The Science of Logic: An Inquiry into the Principles of Accurate Thought Longmans.
Jamieson, Barrie G.M (2007). Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Birds. Charlottesville VA: University of Virginia.
Jameson, K.A., Highnote, S. M., &- Wasserman, L.M. (2001). ???Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes???. (PDF). Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 8(2): 24261.
Reproducing Visble Spectra. Repairfaq. Org. 2011

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